Depression is a melancholic state of low mood and sadness. Depression can be said to be a key form of the affective disorder. An affective disorder is a disorder of mood and subjective feelings. The mood of a depressed patient is a mystery, this mood does not improve substantially in circumstances where the ordinary feeling of sadness would be alleviated. There are several features of depression, among are sadness, discouragement, low mood, lack of enjoyment, diminished concentration, guilt, reduced libido, reduced energy, loss of appetite, retardation, loss of weight and in rare cases, suicide.

Major components vital to depression:

Pessimistic thought

Lack of enjoyment

Psychomotor retardationPessimistic thought: is a state of depressive perception, which is concerned with how the patient relates past, present and future circumstances. For example, a patient may feel guilty about past trivial act of dishonesty or he/she foresees failure in his work, enviable deterioration in his health.

Lack of Enjoyment: a typical depressive patient will show no enthusiasm for activities that he will normally enjoy. They often withdraw from the social encounter and also have reduced energy.
Psychomotor retardation: Patients are often very slow in their act, this slow act is reflected in their speech, and there is a long delay before they answer questions. Patients that are psychomotor retarded often pause during the conversation, at times their speech may be intolerable to a non-depressed individual.

Hypomania is the direct opposite of depression, a combination of the two words (manic-depression) is an outdated term for Bipolar Disorder according to the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder 5. There are several causes of depression ranging from biological model to psychological and social cognitive perspective. Efficient treatment is better administered by psychiatrist, psychologist.

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